Veterinary encyclopedia

Abdominal breathing :  Abdominal breathing is an abnormal breathing that uses abdominal muscles to move air in and out of the lungs. It is usually a consequence of some type of respiratory disease or infection.

Abdominal effusion : It is a condition in which fluid builds up around the vital organs inside the abdomen. It can be the side effect of a serious condition, like liver disease, cancer, or heart disease. Some viral and bacterial infections can also cause the build-up of such fluid.

Ablepharia : It is a congenital condition in which eyelids are partially or completely missing.

Anosomia : The loss of sense of smell

Arthrodesis : surgical fusion of the adjacent bones in a joint for immobilization

Arthrogryposis : persistent flexion of a joint

Balanoposthitis : inflammation of the penis and prepuce

Blepharitis : Inflammation of eyelids is called blepharitis.

Blepharospasm  : is abnormal contraction of the eyelid muscles causing blinking , squinting and closure of eyelids. The affected eye is usually red, swollen and itchy.

Bradycardia : Slower heart rate than normal is called bradycardia.

Bradypnea :Slower breathing rate than normal is called bradypnea.

Buphthalmos :A condition characterized by an abnormally large eye, which can happen due to glaucoma.

Carnassial teeth : The upper fourth premolar and lower first molar teeth in dogs and the upper third premolar and lower first molar teeth in cats. They help shear food. They are also called sectorial teeth.

Cataract  :  When the lens of the eye becomes cloudy or “opaque” , it is called cataract. Although aging brings cataract, there are medical conditions like diabetes mellitus that promote this condition and cause it to happen earlier.

Chalazion : It is a firm, cyst-like swelling on upper or sometimes lower eyelids that develops following occlusion of tarsal gland ducts. The continued production of lipid without exiting the gland results in swelling of tarsal gland and eventually it can rupture. This can induce a granulomatous reaction.

Chemosis : marked edema and swelling of the conjunctiva ( the thin membrane that covers parts of the front surface of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids)

Coloboma : A coloboma is a  congenital condition in which part of normal tissue in or around the eye ( for example eyelid ) is not formed . In dogs iris coloboma is a known condition.

Coupage : percussion of the chest to aid in the removal of secretions

Dacryocystitis : inflammation or infection of the lacrimal sacs

Diarthrodial joint : Synovial joint which is the most mobile joint in the body .

Diascopy : a technique in which a clear glass is pressed over the red skin lesion, if the red colour goes away or fades , there is vascular engorgement and if not, there is hemorrhage in the skin.

Distichiasis : It is an uncomfortable condition in which abnormal eyelashes grow from meibomian gland and make contact with the surface of the eyeball.

Dyscoria:  Abnormal shape of pupils

Enophthalmos : Backward displacement of the eyeball into the orbit.

Enthesophytes :  Abnormal bony projections at the attachment of ligaments or tendons.

Entropion : The inward rolling or inversion of eyelid is called Entropion. It can cause irritation and damage to the cornea.

Enucleation : The removal of the entire eye ball is called enucleation

Epiphora:   Weepy  eyes

Epispadias : It is a developmental abnormality  that is extremely rare in females and in which the urethra opens on dorsal and caudal to it’s normal location.

Exotropia: A form of strabismus in which both eyes turn outward.

Faucitis : inflammation of the throat ( pharyngitis)

Jaundice :  When skin and mucous membranes turn yellow in color because of increased amount of bilirubin in the blood and tissues, it is called jaundice.

Hypospadias  :    It is a developmental abnormality that develops in both males and females in which the urethra opens ventral and caudal to its normal location.

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca :  Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or “dry eye” is the inflammation of the cornea and the conjunctiva ( the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids) . It results from inadequate production of tear .

Kussmaul breathing : A distressing dyspnea ( laboured breathing) occurring in paroxysms

Lordosis: Downward curvature of spine in small animals

Myoclonus : repetitive rhythmic contractions of a group of muscles

Nociceptor : a receptor for pain that is stimulated by injury

Odynophagia : painful swallowing

Onychitis (Onychia)  : inflammation in the claw unit

Onychodystrophy : abnormal claw formation

Onychomadesis : the sloughing of the claws

Ophthalmia : severe inflammation of the eye

Ophthalmia Neonatorum : A purulent conjunctivitis that happens during the first 19 days of life before eyelids open in puppies and kittens. Feline herpes virus causes that in kittens.

Oroantral fistula : communication between the oral cavity and caudal respiratory tract

Osteochondrosis : is a developmental disease characterized by abnormal differentiation and ossification of growth cartilages

Osteopenia : reduced bone mass due to a decrease in the rate of Osteoid synthesis

Pectus excavatum : A congenital deformity in which the sternum and caudal ribs are concave causing the reduction of the thoracic cavity

Polytocous : giving birth to many offspring at one time

Priapism: persistent abnormal erection

Proper ligament : A fold of peritoneum which unites  ovaries to uterus or testis to epididymis 

Proptosis : forward displacement of the eye also called exophthalmos

Ptosis : drooping of the upper eyelids ( one of the common signs of Horner’s syndrome)

Root signature : Referred pain down a limb that can cause lameness or elevation of the limb usually caused by an extruded intervertebral disc.

Slab fracture: when a flat piece of underlying bone or tooth is separated or lost

Stertor  : low-pitched snoring from vibration of flaccid tissue or fluid from pharyngeal airway obstruction

Stridor : high-pitched sounds from rigid tissues vibrated by passage of air through collapsed trachea or partial laryngeal obstruction, it happens in diabetic acidosis

Stokes-Adams attack : unconsciousness or syncope caused by heart block and ventricular asystole leading to inadequate blood flow to the brain and cerebral ischemia

Symblepharon : The adhesion of eyeball to eyelid

Synechia : Adhesion, For example adhesion of iris to cornea or lense

Tachycardia : Faster heart rate than normal is called tachycardia.

Tachypnea : Faster breathing rate than normal is called tachypnea.

Torsion : It is the rotation of an internal organ or part of it on it’s long axis which can cause compromise of the blood vessels supplying perfusion to the organ.

Trichiasis : It is an uncomfortable condition in which eyelashes or facial hairs are misdirected and they make contact with cornea or eyeball.

Vestibular disease  : Vestibular disease results in neurological signs like ataxia, head tilt, falling, rolling, circling, and abnormal nystagmus. Vestibular system plays a major role in maintaining balance by helping control and adjusting the position of the eyes, head and body through sensing gravity.

Von willebrand’s disease : the most common inherited bleeding disorder in dogs caused by a deficiency of a specific protein

Water_hammer pulse : a pulse in which the artery  suddenly and markedly distends and then suddenly collapses . It happens in patent ductus arteriosus . It is also called Corrigan’s pulse , jerky orB-B shot pulse.

Xerosis : Abnormal dryness of skin ( Xerosis Cutis)  , eye ( Xerophthalmia ) or oral mucous membrane ( Xerostomia )